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The middle lamella is laid down first, formed from the cell plate during cytokinesis , and the primary cell wall is then deposited inside the middle lamella. However, the primary cell wall, can be defined as composed of cellulose microfibrils aligned at all angles. Cellulose microfibrils are produced at the plasma membrane by the cellulose synthase complex , which is proposed to be made of a hexameric rosette that contains three cellulose synthase catalytic subunits for each of the six units. The cells are held together and share the gelatinous membrane called the middle lamella , which contains magnesium and calcium pectates salts of pectic acid.

Cells interact though plasmodesmata , which are inter-connecting channels of cytoplasm that connect to the protoplasts of adjacent cells across the cell wall. In some plants and cell types, after a maximum size or point in development has been reached, a secondary wall is constructed between the plasma membrane and primary wall. Cell to cell communication is possible through pits in the secondary cell wall that allow plasmodesmata to connect cells through the secondary cell walls.

There are several groups of organisms that have been called "fungi". Some of these groups Oomycete and Myxogastria have been transferred out of the Kingdom Fungi, in part because of fundamental biochemical differences in the composition of the cell wall. Most true fungi have a cell wall consisting largely of chitin and other polysaccharides. In fungi, the cell wall is the outer-most layer, external to the plasma membrane. The fungal cell wall is a matrix of three main components: [16].

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Like plants, algae have cell walls. The inclusion of additional polysaccharides in algal cells walls is used as a feature for algal taxonomy. Other compounds that may accumulate in algal cell walls include sporopollenin and calcium ions. The group of algae known as the diatoms synthesize their cell walls also known as frustules or valves from silicic acid.

In brown algae , phlorotannins may be a constituent of the cell walls. The group Oomycetes , also known as water molds, are saprotrophic plant pathogens like fungi. Until recently they were widely believed to be fungi, but structural and molecular evidence [33] has led to their reclassification as heterokonts , related to autotrophic brown algae and diatoms.

Unlike fungi, oomycetes typically possess cell walls of cellulose and glucans rather than chitin, although some genera such as Achlya and Saprolegnia do have chitin in their walls.

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  7. The dictyostelids are another group formerly classified among the fungi. They are slime molds that feed as unicellular amoebae , but aggregate into a reproductive stalk and sporangium under certain conditions.

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    • Determining the polysaccharide composition of plant cell walls.

    Cells of the reproductive stalk, as well as the spores formed at the apex, possess a cellulose wall. Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan also called murein , which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D- amino acids.

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    The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, although L-form bacteria can be produced in the laboratory that lack a cell wall. There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called gram-positive and gram-negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain , a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.

    Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. Although not truly unique, the cell walls of Archaea are unusual.

    Whereas peptidoglycan is a standard component of all bacterial cell walls, all archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan , [42] though some methanogens have a cell wall made of a similar polymer called pseudopeptidoglycan. One type of archaeal cell wall is that composed of pseudopeptidoglycan also called pseudomurein.

    This type of wall is found in some methanogens , such as Methanobacterium and Methanothermus. Like the peptidoglycan found in bacterial cell walls, pseudopeptidoglycan consists of polymer chains of glycan cross-linked by short peptide connections. Additionally, the cross-linking peptides are L-amino acids rather than D-amino acids as they are in bacteria. A second type of archaeal cell wall is found in Methanosarcina and Halococcus. This type of cell wall is composed entirely of a thick layer of polysaccharides , which may be sulfated in the case of Halococcus.

    A third type of wall among the Archaea consists of glycoprotein , and occurs in the hyperthermophiles , Halobacterium , and some methanogens. In Halobacterium , the proteins in the wall have a high content of acidic amino acids , giving the wall an overall negative charge.

    The result is an unstable structure that is stabilized by the presence of large quantities of positive sodium ions that neutralize the charge. In other Archaea, such as Methanomicrobium and Desulfurococcus , the wall may be composed only of surface-layer proteins , [12] known as an S-layer.

    S-layers are common in bacteria, where they serve as either the sole cell-wall component or an outer layer in conjunction with polysaccharides. Most Archaea are Gram-negative, though at least one Gram-positive member is known.


    Many protists and bacteria produce other cell surface structures apart from cell walls, external extracellular matrix or internal. Diatoms build a frustule from silica extracted from the surrounding water; radiolarians , foraminiferans , testate amoebae and silicoflagellates also produce a skeleton from minerals , called test in some groups. Many green algae , such as Halimeda and the Dasycladales , and some red algae , the Corallinales , encase their cells in a secreted skeleton of calcium carbonate. In each case, the wall is rigid and essentially inorganic. It is the non-living component of cell.

    Some golden algae , ciliates and choanoflagellates produces a shell-like protective outer covering called lorica. Some dinoflagellates have a theca of cellulose plates, and coccolithophorids have coccoliths. An extracellular matrix ECM is also present in metazoans. Its composition varies between cells, but collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Cell biology The plant cell Components of a typical plant cell: a.

    Plasmodesmata b. Plasma membrane c. Cell wall 1. Chloroplast d. Thylakoid membrane e. Starch grain 2.

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    Vacuole f. Vacuole g. Tonoplast h. Mitochondrion i. Peroxisome j. Cytoplasm k. Small membranous vesicles l. Rough endoplasmic reticulum 3. Nucleus m. Nuclear pore n.


    Nuclear envelope o. Nucleolus p.

    Ribosome q. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum r. Golgi vesicles s. Golgi apparatus Golgi body t. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.