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This decline can be attributed to "more aggressive actions from financial institutions, identity theft protection providers and consumers," Javelin said. Related: Busting a credit card hacker. To protect yourself from fraud , create strong passwords and lock electronic devices like computers and cell phones, change your passwords frequently, monitor your bank accounts and credit card statements regularly, shred personal documents, install security software on your computer and phone and avoid public Wi-Fi connections, Javelin recommends. If you notice suspicious activity, contact your financial institution immediately -- the sooner you do, the better chance you have of getting your money back.

If you receive a data breach notification, place a fraud alert on your credit report so that lenders take extra precautions to make sure anyone applying for credit under your name is actually you. And take advantage of any free credit monitoring service you're offered from a retailer that was hit with a data breach. Target, for example, is offering impacted customers free credit monitoring for one year, and recently extended the offer to all customers. We're no longer maintaining this page. Identity fraud is on the rise.

Personal Finance. LendingTree Paid Partner. CNNMoney Sponsors. A number of organizations reported problems caused by flawed software following the June 30, , leap second. Among the sites which reported problems were Reddit Apache Cassandra , Mozilla Hadoop , [44] Qantas , [45] and various sites running Linux. On November 28, , this happened.

At midnight, the receivers with this firmware reported November 29, for one second and then reverted to November 28, Older Trimble GPS receivers had a software flaw that would insert a leap second immediately after the GPS constellation started broadcasting the next leap second insertion time some months in advance of the actual leap second , rather than waiting for the next leap second to happen.

ITS International - Two seconds – the difference between life and death

This left the receiver's time off by a second in the interim. The advance announcement of the leap second is applied as soon as the message is received, instead of waiting for the correct date. A workaround has been described and tested, but if the GPS system rebroadcasts the announcement, or the unit is powered off, the problem will occur again. On January 21, , several models of GPS receivers implemented the leap second as soon as the announcement was broadcast by GPS, instead of waiting until the implementation date of June The NTP packet includes a leap second flag, which informs the user that a leap second is imminent.

This, among other things, allows the user to distinguish between a bad measurement that should be ignored and a genuine leap second that should be followed. It has been reported that never, since the monitoring began in and whether or not a leap second should be inserted, have all NTP servers correctly set their flags on a December 31 or June Four different brands of marketed navigational receivers that use data from GPS or Galileo along with the Chinese BeiDou satellites, and even some receivers that use BeiDou satellites alone, were found to implement leap seconds one day early.

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The problem was found to exist in commercial simulators that are used by manufacturers to test their equipment. The effect of leap seconds on the commercial sector has been described as "a nightmare". Despite the publicity given to the leap second, Internet network failures occurred due to the vulnerability of at least one class of router. The leap second also affected the Altea airlines reservation system used by Qantas and Virgin Australia. Cloudflare was affected by the leap second.

Its DNS resolver implementation calculated a negative number when subtracting two timestamps obtained from the Go programming language 's time. Now function, which then used only a real-time clock source.


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There were concerns that farming equipment using GPS during harvests occurring on December 31, , would be affected by the leap second. The most obvious workaround is to use the TAI scale for all operational purposes and convert to UTC for human-readable text. Grid automation is planning to switch to TAI for global distribution of events in electrical grids.

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Instead of inserting a leap second at the end of the day, Google servers implement a "leap smear", extending seconds slightly over a time window prior to the leap second. It has been proposed that media clients using the Real-time Transport Protocol inhibit generation or use of NTP timestamps during the leap second and the second preceding it.

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    (Book Review) The Last Two Seconds by Mary Jo Bang

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